Showing posts with label History. Show all posts
Showing posts with label History. Show all posts

Helsinki Finland | Short History


The first Finnish tribes arrived in the 7th century by way of Estonia, with whom they are still linked by a common language. They slowly pushed the native Lapps north, to an area close to the Arctic Circle. The Swedish ing, Erik IX, established trade routes across Finland to the Russian state of Novgorod in the 12th century, and Swedish rule took over, lasting some 700 years. In 1550, Helsinki, a new market town, was founded by King Gustav Vasa of Sweden. Over the years fire, plague and war have all affected the area, greatly reducing the population.

In 1748 the great fortress at Suomenlinna was built to protect the City, later known as the Gibraltar of the North. However, in 1808 the fortress fell without a struggle to Russian forces, and a year later the country became part of the Russian Empire. In 1812 the Czar moved the Finnish capital from Turku to Helsinki. At around this time the neo-classical buildings around Senate Square and the Cathedral were built. During the Russian Revolution of 1917 the Finns declared Independence which was followed by a devastating Civil War. After two years the Red force were beaten by the White army, led by General Mannerheim, and a Republican Government was established with Helsinki as the capital.

Shortly before World War II, Finland was once again at war with Russia, and is proud of the fact that it fought the Soviets to a standstill and retained its independence in the Winter War of 1939-1940. During the Second World War, Finland sided with Germany and in consequence, had to pay heavy war reparations to the Soviet Union in the years following the War. Today Finland is a western parliamentary democracy, a member of the United Nations peace keeping operations and an equal partner in the growing affluence of Scandinavia.

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The History of Saint Petersburg, Russia

The History of Saint Petersburg, Russia

Saint Petersburg, Russia


Saint Petersburg History. Saint Petersburg was founded in 1703 by Tsar Peter the Great. Tsar Peter the Great was eager to have a great metropolis and port city. To achieve his ambition, then he labored plenty foreign workers to build the city. As soon as the city was completely built, he began to transfer the Government from Moscow to it. From then on, Saint Petersburg became the capital of all Russia.

Catherine the Great (1762-1796) continued to build the City into a major European capital and imported many foreign architects and artist to help. She founded the Hermitage Museum and bought vast treasures of art work from all over Europe, helping to make this one of the greatest collections in the world. In 1812 Napoleon invaded Russia but was driven back. By the end of the 1820's nearly all of Russia's foreign maritime trade had become concentrated in the City, and it was the base for many industrial enterprises; shipbuilding, arms and gunpowder plants and other large manufacturing industries.

In 1914 Russia entered World War I on the side of the Allies and Saint Petersburg changed its name to Petrograd. In 1917, in the October Revolution the Bolsheviks, Lenin's Communist Party seized power. From then on, the Soviet State was established. In 1918 the seat of Government was moved from the City to Moscow. When Lenin died in 1924, Petrograd was renamed Leningrad to honor him.

During World War II Leningrad withstood a 3 year siege by the Germans. It is estimated that one million people died from hunger and freezing weather. The City was rebuilt into a major industrial and scientific center.

In 1991 the Soviet Union disintegrated. Boris Yeltsin became president in the first democratic election and the people of the City voted to change the name of Leningrad back to Saint Petersburg.

Tallinn Estonia, Location, History

Estonia, the northern most and smallest of the Baltic States, is also the most westernized and lies on the shores of the Gulf of Finland, between Russia in the east and Latvia in the south. Some 18,000 square miles in are, with a population of about 1.5 million people, it is a country of plains, marshes and forests, with as many as 1,500 lakes and 500 islands. The language is Finno-Ugric which is closely tied to that of Finland. On August 20th, 1991 Estonian independence from the Soviet Union was declared, and the United Nations Organization recognized it as a Sovereign State. It was the first Baltic State to begin monetary reform and a national currency, the Estonian Kroon, was introduced in 1992.

Tallin


Tallinn is the capital of Estonia. It is situated on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, only 53 miles by sea from Helsinki. It is the Republic's largest industrial and cultural center and an important Baltic harbor. Tallinn is inhabited by 400,000 people. It is very well-known as one of the prettiest cities in the Baltic and was once one of the largest towns in Europe. Set on a hillock above the Port, the old town is a medieval enclave with old walls, towers, winding cobbled lanes and buildings dating back to the Middle Ages. Today the City's main industries include; electrical and oil drilling machinery, textile and paper manufacturing.


History of Tallinn

The first settlement in Tallinn began around 2,500 B.C. by tribes who drifted across Europe from Asia. Around 800 A.D. Estonian Vikings began trade here between the east and the west and in the 10th century, a stronghold was built on Toompea (Castle Hill). In 1219 the Danes conquered the area and rebuilt the Fort. The Estonians called it Taanillin, 'the City of Danes'. The City became powerful Hanseatic League port from 1248, when the town wall was being constructed. The City, then, was sold by Denmark to Teutonic Knights in 1346, resold yet a year later, it continued to flourish as guilds became properous and merchant's wealthy.

Tallin took an oath of allegiance in 1561 to King Eric XIV of Sweden to protect itself from an invasion by Russia, an 70 years later Sweden founded the City's first high school. At the end of the Great Northern War in 1710, Russia took control of the country and turned Tallinn into a garrison town. In 1870 the City was connected by railway to Saint Petersburg and became one of the principal ports for Russian Imperial trade. Consequently, Tallinn began to be industrialized and grew outward from the medieval center. In 1918 the Estonians managed to get their country and capital back, but in 1940 it was annexed to the Soviet Union. Shortly after that, it was invaded and occupied by German forces and Tallinn was heavily bombed by Soviet airplanes in 1944. During and after the war, many Estonians, mostly women and children, were deported by the Soviets to Siberia. At this time Russian nationals migrated into Estonia and large suburbs were built. Today about half of the population is Russian. In 1991 Estonia became independent from the Soviet Union and joined the United Nations.

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Five Minute Tallinn Guide

Five Minute History of Oslo, Norway

Oslo History. In the 8th century, during viking times, a settlement was built at the head of Oslo Fjord. It continued to grow and in 1048 Harold Hardrade, a Viking King, established a commercial town on the site. During the 12th century, various struggles occured between rival contenders for the Monarchy, but slowly peace and prosperity came to Norway. During the reign of King Haakon V (1299-1319), Oslo was decreed the capital of Norway and Akershus Castle and Fortress were established. In the mid-14th century Norway was struck by the Plague and over half the population died. At the end of the century Norway, Sweden and Denmark joined together, forming the largest Viking Kingdom, under the Treaty of Kalmar. It was ruled from Denmark.

According to history, by 1536 Norway was fully incorporated into the Kingdom of Denmark. Consequently, Oslo lost its importance as a capital. With the reformation, a Protestant national church was established. In 1624 the destruction of Oslo by fire, gave King Christian IV the opportunity to lay the foundations for a spacious new city, which he placed behind Akershus Fortress and named Christiana in honor of himself. The streest he planned are still the main streets of central Oslo. In 1814 Norway was separated from Denmark but united with Sweden as part of war reparations. Expansion and prosperity occured and by 1905 Norway became independent. In 1925, the capital changed its name back to Oslo. In early 1940, after fierce battles, Norway was occupied by overwhelming German forces, during the next 5 years a heroic underground movement defied the brutal cooperation of the Quisling Government, and played a vital part in delaying the Nazi atomic program. Some years after the war, oil and gas fields were found off Norways's coast and the country's properity and industrial development has tremendously increased.

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